Our coastline is changing

Sea Level Rise

NIWA and Greater Wellington Regional Council tide gauge records show the sea level in the Wellington region has risen 27cm over the past 120 years, and 17cm since 1960.

In other words, the tides are reaching almost 30% higher today than they were in 1900. We’re starting to see the impacts of this on our coast and in our coastal environment.

Accretion and erosion

Coastal erosion and accretion (sand accumulation) occurs in different places and at different times along our coast and these patterns may change in the future.

  • In areas such as Waikanae and Ōtaki there has been a history of coastal accretion.
  • In Paekākāriki and Raumati South there has been a sustained period of coastal erosion.

Coastal erosion can be a slow creeping thing that happens incrementally over a long period of time. It can have dramatic effects with sand disappearing from the front of dunes and beaches after big storms, sometimes up to several metres.

OUR COASTAL BIBLIOGRAPHY

studies have been undertaken, describing the coastal environment and dynamics along the Kāpiti Coast. These studies alongside smaller more focused projects or investigations are catalogued in a timeline below.

Additional background research on coastal hazards can also be found here.

Tectonic land movements

GPS measurements show the Greater Wellington region has been sinking at rates of around 2–5mm per year since 1995, with the Kāpiti Coast sinking 3.5–5mm per year.

To put this into context, the Kāpiti Coast has dropped 7cm since 2000.

What does this mean?

There is a cumulative effect of coastal erosion, sea-level rise and tectonic land movements on our coastline. While there is still some uncertainty about how significant these impacts will be, and how quickly they will happen, there is a need for us to start planning for our future.

Communities that plan together for change are more resilient.

Our Coastal Bibliography

Numerous studies have been undertaken, describing the coastal environment and dynamics along the Kāpiti Coast. These studies alongside smaller more focused projects or investigations are catalogued in the timeline below. Click on each of the titles to be directed to the report.

We have endeavoured to undertake a thorough catalogue of the studies to date. However, if there is a relevant technical report not on the list, please contact us on coastal@kapiticoast.govt.nz

 

1950-79

1951 | Geology

Geology of the Paekakariki area of the coastal lowlands of western Wellington (1951)

Scientific Paper | Adkin, G.L.

Early information on the geology and geomorphology of the Paekākāriki area from fieldwork undertaken in the 1940s.

1961 | Geology

The Genesis of Horowhenua (1961)

Technical Report (general) | Fleming, C.A.

A popular science article outlining the geological and geomorphic development of the Kāpiti-Horowhenua area.

1963 | Sand dunes

Dune-building phases in the Manawatu district, New Zealand (1963)

Scientific Paper | Cowie, J.D.

Describes the main phases of dune development for the Kāpiti-Manawatu coastal plain.

1972 | Geomorphology

Beach Morphology and Sediments of the West Wellington Coast: Wanganui to Paekakariki (1972)

Masters Thesis | Gibbard, R.

This thesis examines the geomorphology and sediment composition of the coast from Wanganui to Paekakariki.

1976 | Coastal erosion

Coastal Erosion- Kapiti Coastline. Notes on the storm of Saturday 11 – Monday 13 September 1976 (1976)

Technical Report (general) | Gibb, J. & Wiltshere, D.

A summary of the 1976 storm event including measurements of the erosion from several locations along the coast.

1978 | Coastal erosion

The problem of erosion along the ‘Golden Coast’ of Western Wellington (1978)

Technical Report (general) | Gibb, J.

Provides a background of geomorphic and geologic information around the Kāpiti Coast coastal environment.

1980-89

1980 | Coastal erosion

Coastal Erosion at Paekakariki: Wellington’s West Coast (1980)

Technical Report (general) | Gibb, J. & Depledge, D.

The report highlights both long term and short term erosional trends along the Paekakariki coast.

1981 | Coastal management

The response to coastal erosion along the Raumati/Paekakariki coastline (1981)

Hons Thesis | McHugh, L.

A thesis examining the remedial works undertaken following the 1976 storm with a focus on planning and management frameworks.

1981 | Coastal processes

Kapiti Borough Council. Coastal Investigations Report No. 2 (1981)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Morris & Wilson Consulting Engineers Ltd.

Describes the main phases of dune development for the Kāpiti-Manawatu coastal plain.

1982 | Geomorphology

Progradation of the Kapiti coast: Paraparaumu Beach to Raumati South (1982)

Hons Thesis | Smith, S.

A thesis looking at the geomorphic development of the coast from Paraparaumu to Raumati South.

1984 | Coastal processes

Kapiti Borough Council. Coastal Investigations Report No. 3A (1984)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | R.W. Morris & Associates

A continuation of previous work undertaken in 1981 looking at coastal processes using wave buoy, beach profile analysis, sediment analysis and bathymetric survey.

1985 | Geomorphology

Processes of coastal change Manawatu-Horowhenua (1985)

Technical Report (general) | Holland, M. & Holland, L.

This report examines historical shoreline trends and coastal processes from the Paekakariki to Himatangi.

1989 | Sand dunes

Sediments of the Paekakariki-Otaki River sand-dune sequence, New Zealand (1989)

Scientific Paper | Wright, L.

This study of the sand dunes that occur in the southern, central and northern portions of the Kāpiti Coast.

1990-95

1994 | Coastal management

Sustainable management of the coastal environment administered by the Kapiti Coast District Council (1994)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Gibb, J.

This report provides a background of coastal processes and geomorphology along the Kapiti Coast and provides some possible management options.

1994 | Coastal management

Discussion Paper No. 9. Coastal Environment Significant Landscapes Natural Environment and Open Space Reserve Issues (1994)

KCDC Report | Innes, G.

Provides the background and rationale for coastal environment zoning and restrictions for the proposed district plan.

1994 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council Interim Report on Beach Nourishment Trial at Marine Parade, Paraparaumu (1994)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Provides an update of the Paraparaumu beach nourishment trial including brief analysis of post construction surveys.

1994 | Coastal management

Operational management plan Resource Consent No. 940061(01) Paraparaumu Beach Renourishment Trial (1994)

Resource Consent Report | Murray, B.

Details location, methodology and monitoring methods of renourishment trial. Includes schematic cross section of works.

1994 | Coastal managment

Coastal Permit to extract up to 6000m³ of sand for a beach nourishment trial (1994)

Resource Consent Report (KCDC) | Wellington Regional Council

Coastal permit for nourishment trial includes maps and conditions.

1995 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council Beach Nourishment Trial at Marine Parade, Paraparaumu. Interim Report No. 2 (1995)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

1995 update on the nourishment trial at Marine Parade with analysis of beach profile surveys.

1995 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council Beach Nourishment Trial at Marine Parade, Paraparaumu. Interim Report No. 3 (1995)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Further update on the nourishment trial at Marine Parade with analysis of beach profile surveys.

1995 | Coastal management

Coastal Erosion Emergency Response Procedures for Protection of Public Property at Paekakariki, Raumati and Paraparaumu (1995)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Set outs regulatory framework for emergency response works at Paekakariki, Raumati and Paraparaumu.

1995 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council Beach Nourishment Trial at Marine Parade, Paraparaumu. Interim Report No. 4 (1995)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Update on the beach nourishment trial at Marine Parade with analysis of beach profile surveys.

1995 | Coastal management

Kapiti Coast District Council Resource Consent Application for Maintenance and Upgrading Coastal Protection Works at Paekakariki

Resource Consent Report | Lumsden, J.

Resource consent application for maintenance of the existing timber seawall at Paekakariki including additional provision for toe rip-rap.

1995 | Coastal management

Coastal Management Proposals at Paekakariki (1995)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Initial options report for coastal management options at Paekakariki.

1996-99

1996 | Coastal management

Kapiti Coast District Council Resource Consent Application for Maintenance of Coastal Protection Works at Raumati (1996)

Resource Consent Report | Lumsden, J.

Resource consent application for maintenance of the existing timber seawall at Raumati that was constructed in 1976.

1996 | Coastal monitoring

Beach Renourishment Trial at Marine Parade Paraparaumu: Final Report (1996)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Monitoring discussion from a 6000m³ sand nourishment placed along the Marine Parade foreshore in 1994.

1997 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council Coastal Management at Paraparaumu Post-renourishment Trial Monitoring. Review Report No. 2 (1997)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

The report provides updated analysis of monitoring profile data from the trial renourishment at Paraparaumu.

1997 | Coastal management

Kapiti Coast District Council Strategies for Management of the Coastline at Paraparaumu. Interim report for discussion purposes (1997)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

This reports outlines a strategy for larger scale renourishment of Paraparaumu Beach including a summary of the monitoring analysis from the trial.

1997 | Coastal management

Coastal Zone Management: The Kapiti Experience (1997)

Conference Paper | Lumsden, J.

The paper outlines the background to development along the Kapiti Coast and the particular pressures this has placed on the coastal zone.

1997 | Coastal management

Kapiti Coast District Council. Strategies for Management of the Coastline at Paraparaumu (1997)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

This report outlines options and strategies for addressing coastal erosion issues along Paraparaumu Beach.

1998 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council Coastal Management at Paraparaumu Post-renourishment Trial Monitoring. Review Report No. 3 (1998)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Provides a short description of a scarp feature that runs from Paekākāriki to Paraparaumu.

1999 | Geology

The Kaiwaka Scarp, Kapiti Coast (1999)

Conference paper | Edwards, A.

Provides a short description of a scarp feature that runs from Paekākāriki to Paraparaumu.

1999 | Coastal management

Management of a Dynamic Coast in a Less Than Ideal World: The Kapiti Experience (1999)

Conference Paper | Lumsden, J.

The paper outlines the background to development along the Kapiti Coast and the particular pressures this has placed on the coastal zone.

1999 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council. Coastal Management at Paraparaumu. Beach Profile Monitoring Report No. 4 (1999)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Analysis of beach monitoring data between November 1998 and May 1999.

2000-05

2000 | Coastal hazards

Kapiti Coast Erosion Hazard Investigations: Waves, Tides, Storm Surge and Sea-level Rise (2000)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Laing, A., Bell, R., Goring, D., Gorman, D., Reid, S. & Renwick, J.

Presents the results from a modelling of a range of coastal processes variables that was used to contribute to an erosion assessment of Kapiti Coast undertaken by John Lumsden.

2000 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council. Coastal Management at Paraparaumu. Beach Profile Monitoring Report No. 5 (2000)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Analysis of beach monitoring data between May 1999 and March 2000.

2000 | Tsunami hazards

Evidence for an earthquake and tsunami about 3100–3400 yr ago, and other catastrophic saltwater inundations recorded in a coastal lagoon, New Zealand (2000)

Scientific Paper | Goff, J., Rouse, H., Jones, S., Hayward, B., Cochran, U., McLea, W., Dickinson, W. & Morley, M.

An investigation of the sediments in Okupe lagoon on Kāpiti Island that provides a record of earthquakes and tsunami over the last 5300 years.

2001 | Coastal management

Queen Elizabeth Park Coastal Dunes Management: Discussion Document (2001)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Boffa Miskell Ltd

Queen Elizabeth Park strategy document outlining the history of dune erosion and management options.

2001 | Tsunami hazards

Wellington Regional Tsunami Hazard Scoping Project (2001)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Goff, J., MacFadgen, B., Chague-Goff, C., Bell, R., Downes, G. & Kozuch, M.

This scoping project provides a summary of tsunami, and tsunami hazards and risk for the Wellington Region, including the Kāpiti Coast.

2002 | Tsunami hazards

Kapiti Coast District Council: Tsunami Hazard and Risk (2002)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Goff, J.

Outlines the potential tsunami risk along the Kapiti Coast based upon historical records.

2002 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council. Coastal Management at Paraparaumu. Beach Profile Monitoring Interim Report No. 6 (2002)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Analysis of beach monitoring data between February and September 2001.

2002 | Tsunami hazards

Paleotsunami Investigations – Okoropunga and Pukerua Bay (2002)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Goff, J. & McFadgen, B.

A summary of field work looking for evidence of a tsunami thought to have widely impacted the Wellington region in the 15th century.

2003 | Coastal management

Strategies for managing coastal erosion hazards on the Kapiti Coast: Submissions (2003)

KCDC report | Kāpiti Coast District Council

Appendix of submission of coastal erosion strategies document.

2003 | Coastal hazards

Strategies for managing coastal erosion hazards on the Kapiti Coast: Appendix II (2003)

KCDC report | Kāpiti Coast District Council

Appendix of background documents including bathymetric survey, storm surge investigations and tsunami hazard assessment.

2003 | Coastal management

Strategies for Managing Coastal Erosion Hazards on the Kapiti Coast: Consideration of Submissions (2003

KCDC report | Kāpiti Coast District Council

Report prepared for councillors detailing the outcome of the consultation process for the coastal erosion hazards strategy document.

2003 | Coastal management

Draft Strategies for managing coastal erosion hazards on the Kapiti Coast (2003)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Boffa Miskell, Planning and Landscape Consultants, National Institute of Water and Atmospheric Research Cuttriss Consultants, Engineers and Surveyors Hunter Hydrographic Services Precision Aerial Surveys GeoEnvironmental Consultants

This report establishes seven different coastal hazard management areas along the Kapiti Coast and provides a description of their geomorphology and coastal processes.

2003 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council. Coastal Management at Paraparaumu. Beach Profile Monitoring Interim Report No. 7 (2003)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Analysis of beach monitoring data between February 2001 and February 2003.

2003 | Coastal monitoring

Evaluation of Coastal Monitoring Surveys around the Waikanae River Mouth (2003)

Resource Consent Report | Greater Wellington Regional Council

An analysis of the data collected to monitor the effects on the beach and shoreline adjacent the Waikanae River mouth following a December 2001 mouth cut.

2004 | Coastal engineering

Beach Drainage Pre-feasibility Study for Kapiti Coast District Council (2004)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Beach Systems Ltd.

Feasibility investigation of beach drainage works at Marine Parade and Paekakariki Beach.

2004 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast District Council. Coastal Management at Paraparaumu. Beach Profile Monitoring Interim Report No. 8 (2004)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Analysis of beach monitoring data surveyed in October 2003.

2005 | Dune restoration

Establishment of a Spinifex (Spinifex Sericeus) Planting Trial on Foredunes, Paraparaumu Beach, Kapiti Coast (2005)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Bergin, D.

Report discussing the findings of a trial spinifex planting at Paraparaumu Beach.

2006-09

2006 | Sand dunes

Dune phases in the Otaki‐Te Horo area (New Zealand): a geomorphic history (2006)

Scientific Paper | Hawke, R. & McConchie, J.

A study of coastal sediments and soil development used understand the recent evolution of the coastal plain between Otaki and Te Horo.

2007 | Climate change

Updated Climate Change Scenarios for the Kapiti Coast (2007)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Baldi, M., Burgess, S., Mullan, B., Salinger, J., Ramsay, D. & Bell, R.

Climate change projections specific to the Kapiti coast with discussion on impacts to rainfall, temperature, sea level and coastal hazards and flooding.

2007 | Coastal flooding

Design Wave and Water Levels for the Kapiti Coast (2007)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Metocean Solutions Ltd.

The report presents a range of modelled wave heights under different return periods for 16 locations along the Kapiti Coast.

2008 | Coastal hazards

Kapiti Coast Erosion Hazard Assessment. Part 1: Open Coast (2008)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Shand, R.

Part 1 of an assessment of the coastal erosion hazard along the Kāpiti Coast, focussing on the open coast.

2008 | Coastal hazards

Kapiti Coast Erosion Hazard Assessment. Part 2: Inlets (2008)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Shand, R.

Part 2 of the Kāpiti Coast erosion hazard assessment that looks at the hazard around12 inlets along the coast, from the Waikākāriki to Waiorongomai Streams.

2008 | Coastal hazards

Kapiti Coastal Erosion Hazard Assessment. Part 3: Data base (2008)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Shand, R.

This report contains the background information used in the wider erosion assessments. It also presents model results/calculations of erosion estimates for various scenarios.

2009 | Tsunami hazards

Interim Tsunami Evacuation Planning Zone Boundary Mapping for the Wellington and Horizons Regions Defined by a GIS-Calculated Attenuation Rule (2009)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Leonard, G., Power, W., Lukovic, B., Smith, W., Langridge, R., Johnston, D. & Downes, G.

Findings from interim tsunami modelling of the Wellington region, including the Kāpiti coast, for evacuation mapping purposes.

2010-15

2010 | Oceanography

Lagrangian and Eulerian estimates of circulation in the lee of Kapiti Island, New Zealand (2010)

Scientific Paper | Chiswell, S. & Stevens, C.

An investigation into the tidal current flows around Kāpiti Island.

2010 | Geology

Late Quaternary geomorphology of the Manawatu coastal plain, North Island, New Zealand (2010)

Scientific Paper | Clement, A., Sloss, C. & Fuller, I.

A review of the evolution of the Manawatu coastal plain and sand dunes over the past 7500 years.

2010 | Coastal processes

Paekakariki Beach: Summary of waves, currents and water levels (2010)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Metocean Solutions Ltd.

The report presents a description of modelled and measured oceanographic variables for Paekakariki Beach.

2012 | Sea level change

Vertical land movement around New Zealand coastline: Implications for sea-level rise (2012)

Technical Report (general) | Beavan, R. & Litchfield, N.

Presents results of land motion data collected from continuous GPS network and discusses relationship to relative sea level change.

2012 | Sea level change

Sea-level variability and trends: Wellington Region (2012)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Bell, R. & Hannah, J.

Examines historical tide gauge records and provides analysis of relative sea level changes in the Wellington region with discussion of future projections.

2012 | Coastal flooding

Assessing the storm inundation hazard for coastal margins around the Wellington region (2012)

Consultant Report (GWRC; KCDC) | Lane, E., Gorman, R., Plew, D. & Stephens, S.

Numerical modelling used to understand the coastal storm surge hazard.

2012 | Coastal hazards

Kapiti Coast Erosion Assessment 2012 Update (2012)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Shand, R.

An update of the 2008 coastal erosion assessment to include consideration of a 100 year timeframe.

2012 | Climate change

High Level Assessment of Climate Change Impacts on Kapiti’s Groundwater (2012)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Sinclair Knight Merz

An assessment of potential effects on the regions groundwater under 4 different climate change scenarios.

2012 | Coastal flooding

Joint probability of storm tide and waves on the open coast of Wellington (2012)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Stephens, S., Gorman, R. & Lane, E.

Calculation of storm surges heights to understand the coastal flooding hazard caused by combined storm-tide and waves for both present day climate and under sea level rise.

2013 | Sea level change

Review of Appendix A (Sea Level Considerations) in the Kotuku Park Ltd. District Plan submission (2013)

Submission | Bell, R.

Response to submission from Kotuku Park Ltd. District Plan submission on local relative sea level change and future scenarios. 

2013 | Coastal hazards

Kapiti Coast Coastal Hazard Assessment (2013)

Submission | de Lange, W.

Submission to the review panel providing a technical review of the assessments underpinning the proposed district plan coastal hazard lines.

2013 | Coastal hazards

Assessment of the Kapiti Coast Erosion Hazard Assessment Report 2008 and 2012 Update by Dr Roger Shand Kotuku Park Ltd (2013)

Submission | Angus, G.

This report is a critique of the 2008 and 2012 erosion hazard assessments.

2013 | Sea level change

Angus Gordon’s response to Dr. Rob Bell’s comments on Appendix 1 (2013)

Submission | Angus, G.

A response to issues raised by Dr Rob Bell in response to Angus Gordon’s review of determining relative sea level rise.

2013 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast Beach Profiles Monitoring Report (2013)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

An analysis of beach profile monitoring data from between 200-2011.

2013 | Coastal hazards

Erosion Hazard Assessment: northern shoreline of Waimeha Inlet (2013)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Shand, R.

This letter report provides a more detailed assessment of the erosion risk at Waimeha Inlet.

2014 | Coastal hazards

Coastal Erosion Hazard Assessment for the Kāpiti Coast: Review of the Science and Assessments Undertaken for the Proposed Kāpiti Coast District Plan 2012 (2014)

Panel Review | Carley, J., Davies, R., Kench, P. & Komar, P.

Summary report of findings from the expert Panel appointed to review the proposed district plan coastal hazard zones.

2014 | Geomorphology

Shoreline Evolution and Potential Future Behaviour of the Waikanae Inlet Eastern Shore Kotuku Park Ltd (2014)

Submission | Angus, G.

A critique of the hazards assessment specific to the Waikanae River mouth estuary.

2015 | Coastal hazards

Kapiti Coast District Council: Coastal Hazards Science Research 2003-2015 Timeline (2015)

KCDC Report | Kāpiti Coast District Council

Provides a summary of the coastal science and some planning undertaken between 2003-2015.

2016-19

2016 | Geology

Detailed geomorphological mapping of the coastal plain of the Kapiti Coast District (2016)

Technical Report (general) | Townsend, D. & Dellow, G.

This report outlines the surface geomorphology of the coastal plain of the Kāpiti Coast using aerial photographs and high resolution topography.

2017 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast Beach Profiles Monitoring Report (2017)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Results of beach surveys undertaken in April 2016 and discussion of the coastal erosion risks.

2017 | Geology

Late Holocene Sedimentation on the Southern Kāpiti Coast (2017)

Masters Thesis | Nolan, R.

A study of the geomorphic evolution of the southern of the Kāpiti Coast by analysing the long term record of sedimentary deposits.

2017 | Tsunami hazards

Hydrodynamic Inundation Modelling and Delineation of Tsunami Evacuation Zones for Porirua and Kapiti Coast (2017)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Mueller, C., Power, W., Wang, X. & Lukovic, B.

Discusses the methods and presents findings from tsunami inundation modelling of the Kāpiti Coast for updating the tsunami evacuation zones.

2018 | Sea level change

Update on relative sea-level rise and vertical land motion: Wellington region (2018)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Bell, R., Denys, P. & Hannah, J.

Update to 2012 report on relative sea level changes in the Wellington region as measured by tide gauge.

2018 | Coastal monitoring

Kapiti Coast Beach Profiles Monitoring Report on Surveys in October 2018 (2018)

Consultant Report (KCDC) | Lumsden, J.

Results of beach surveys undertaken in October 2018 and discussion of the coastal erosion risks.

2018 | Coastal processes

River Management Activities: Western Rivers Coastal Processes Input (2018)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Smith, H. & Bevin, S.

A review and discussion of the effects of flood protection activities on the coastal processes and beaches of the Kapiti Coast.

2019 | Coastal flooding

Storm Surge Inundation Maps for the Kāpiti Coast (2019)

Consultant Report (GWRC) | Bosserelle, B. & Lane, E.

Update to 2012 coastal storm surge modelling taking in the shoreline from Pekapeka to Ōtaki.

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