Sea Level Rise
NIWA and Greater Wellington Regional Council tide gauge records show the sea level in the Wellington region has risen 27cm over the past 120 years, and 17cm since 1960.
In other words, the tides are reaching almost 30% higher today than they were in 1900. We’re starting to see the impacts of this on our coast and in our coastal environment.
Accretion and erosion
Coastal erosion and accretion (sand accumulation) occurs in different places and at different times along our coast and these patterns may change in the future.
- In areas such as Waikanae and Ōtaki there has been a history of coastal accretion.
- In Paekākāriki and Raumati South there has been a sustained period of coastal erosion.
Coastal erosion can be a slow creeping thing that happens incrementally over a long period of time. It can have dramatic effects with sand disappearing from the front of dunes and beaches after big storms, sometimes up to several metres.
Tectonic land movements
GPS measurements show the Greater Wellington region has been sinking at rates of around 2–5mm per year since 1995, with the Kāpiti Coast sinking 3.5–5mm per year.
To put this into context, the Kāpiti Coast has dropped 7cm since 2000.
What does this mean?
There is a cumulative effect of coastal erosion, sea-level rise and tectonic land movements on our coastline. While there is still some uncertainty about how significant these impacts will be, and how quickly they will happen, there is a need for us to start planning for our future.
Communities that plan together for change are more resilient.
The loss of land due to coastal processes, such as waves and tidal currents, wearing away the land suddenly or overtime.
Deposition of sediment (such as sand) at the immediate shoreline area, resulting in the beach profile elevating/ advancing seaward.
Flooding of land or buildings from seawater.
The rise in the level of the sea caused by a storm. This is due to low atmospheric pressure and onshore winds causing surge and extreme wave heights along the coast.
The rise in the level of the sea. Relative (or local) sea level rise is measured by tidal gauges and includes both:
- the change of the level of the sea (such as from global warming);
- and movement of the land (such as from earthquake subsidence) for the area.
Movement of the tectonic plates (earthquakes) that make up Earth’s crust.
Our coastal bibliography
Numerous studies have been undertaken, describing the coastal environment and dynamics along the Kāpiti Coast. These studies alongside smaller more focused projects or investigations are catalogued in the timeline below. Click on each of the titles to be directed to the report.
We have endeavoured to undertake a thorough catalogue of the studies to date. However, if there is a relevant technical report not on the list, please contact us on firstname.lastname@example.org